Duan, S (reprint author), Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Biol Sci, Inst Neurosci, State Key Lab Neurobiol, 320 Yueyang Rd, Shanghai 200031, Peoples R China,email@example.com
The hypocretin (orexin) neurons in the lateral hypothalamus play a crucial role in the promotion of arousal. Adenosine, an endogenous sleep-promoting factor, modulates both neuronal excitatory and synaptic transmission in the CNS. In this study, the involvement of endogenous adenosine in the regulation of excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmission to hypocretin neurons was investigated in the hypothalamic slices from transgenic mice by using different frequencies of stimulation. A train of low-frequency stimulation (0.033, 1 Hz) had no effect on the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (evEPSCs) in hypocretin neurons. Blockade of adenosine All receptors with selective A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT), the amplitude of evEPSCs did not change during 0.033 and I Hz stimuli. When the frequency of stimulation was increased upto 2 Hz, a time-dependent depression of amplitude was recorded in hypocretin neurons. Administration of CPT caused no significant change in depressed synaptic response induced by 2 Hz stimulus. While depression induced by 10 and 100 Hz stimuli was partially inhibited by the CPT but not by the selective A2 receptor antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-1-(2-propynyl)xanthine. Further findings have demonstrated that high-frequency stimulation could induce long-term potentiation (LTP) of glutamatergic synaptic transmission to hypocretin neurons in acute hypothalamic slices. The experiments with CPT suggested that A1 receptor antagonist could facilitate the induction of LTP, indicating that endogenous adenosine, acting through A1 receptors, may suppress the induction of LTP of excitatory synaptic transmission to hypocretin neurons. These results suggest that in the hypothalamus, endogenous adenosine will be released into extracellular space in an activity-dependent manner inhibiting both basal excitatory synaptic transmission and LTP in hypocretin neurons via A1 receptors. Our data provide further support for the notion that hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus may be another important target involved in the endogenous adenosine modulating the sleep and wakefulness cycle in the mammalian CNS. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xia, J.; Chen, F.; Ye, J.; Yan, J.; Wang, H.; Duan, S.; Hu, Z..ACTIVITY-DEPENDENT RELEASE OF ADENOSINE INHIBITS THE GLUTAMATERGIC SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND PLASTICITY IN THE HYPOTHALAMIC HYPOCRETIN/OREXIN NEURONS,NEUROSCIENCE,2009,162(4):980-988