Zhou, ZJ (reprint author), Univ Arkansas Med Sci Hosp, Dept Physiol & Biophys, Mail Slot 505, Little Rock, AR 72205 USA,firstname.lastname@example.org
Spontaneous rhythmic waves in the developing mammalian retina are thought to propagate among differentiated neurons in the inner retina (IR) and play an important role in activity-dependent visual development. Here we report a new form of rhythmic Ca2+ wave in the ventricular zone (VZ) of the developing rabbit retina. Ca2+ imaging from two-photon optical sections near the ventricular surface of the whole-mount retina showed rhythmic Ca2+ transients propagating laterally as waves. The VZ waves had a distinctively slow Ca2+ dynamics (lasting similar to20 s) but shared a similar frequency and propagation speed with the IR waves. Simultaneous Ca2+ imaging in VZ and multi-electrode array recording in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) revealed close spatiotemporal correlation between spontaneous VZ and IR waves, suggesting a common source of initiation and/or regulation of the two waves. Pharmacological studies further showed that all drugs that blocked IR waves also blocked VZ waves. However, the muscarinic antagonist atropine selectively blocked VZ but not IR waves at this developmental stage, indicating that IR waves were not dependent on VZ waves, but VZ waves likely relied on the initiation of IR waves. Eliciting IR waves with puffs of nicotinic or non-N-methyl-D-aspartate agonists in GCL produced atropine-sensitive waves in the VZ, demonstrating a unique, retrograde signaling pathway from IR to VZ. Thus differentiated neurons in the IR use spontaneous, rhythmic waves to send both forward signals to the central visual targets and retrograde messages to the developing cells in the VZ.